ColonelMac - - May 30, Subject: Revealed Wisdom Most of the comments here reflect what a good "counter-propaganda" job the Civil Liberties Public Education Fund did in the late s.
Formation[ edit ] Hayward, CaliforniaMay 8, Two children of the Mochida family who, with their parents, are awaiting evacuation bus. The youngster on the right holds a sandwich given her by one of a group of women who were present from a local church. The family unit is kept intact during evacuation and at War Relocation Authority centers where evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed for the duration.
Photo by Dorothea Lange. Roosevelt issued Executive Orderauthorizing military commanders to create zones from which certain persons could be excluded if they posed a threat to national security. Military Areas 1 and 2 were created soon after, encompassing all of California and much of Washington, Oregon and Arizona, and subsequent civilian exclusion orders informed Japanese Americans residing in these zones they would be scheduled for "evacuation.
Eisenhower as the original director. Eisenhower was a proponent of Roosevelt's New Deal and disapproved of the idea of the mass internment.
However, during his tenure with the WRA he raised wages for interned Japanese Americans, worked with the Japanese American Citizens League to establish an internee advisory council, initiated a student leave program for college-age Niseiand petitioned Congress to create programs for postwar rehabilitation.
He also pushed Roosevelt to make a public statement in support of loyal Nisei and attempted to enlist the Federal Reserve Bank to protect the property left behind by displaced Japanese Americans, but was unable to overcome opposition to these proposals.
Myerwho would run the WRA until its dissolution at the end of the war. Japanese Americans had already been removed from their West Coast homes and placed in temporary " assembly centers " run by a separate military body, the Wartime Civilian Control Administration over the spring of ; Myer's primary responsibility upon taking the position was to continue with the planning and construction of the more permanent replacements for the WCCA camps.
Site selection was based upon multiple criteria, including: Ability to provide work in public works, agriculture, manufacturing. Adequate transportation, power facilities, sufficient area of quality soil, water, and climate Able to house at least 5, people Public land  The camps had to be built from the ground up, and wartime shortages of labor and lumber combined with the vast scope of each construction project several of the WRA camps were among the largest "cities" in the states that housed them meant that many sites were unfinished when transfers began to arrive from the assembly centers.
At Manzanar, for example, internees were recruited to help complete construction. One of the few ways to earn permission to leave the camps was to enter military service.
Life in a WRA camp was difficult. Those fortunate enough to find a job worked long hours, usually in agricultural jobs.
Resistance to camp guards and escape attempts were a low priority for most of the Japanese Americans held in the camps. Residents were more often concerned with the problems of day-to-day life: Many of those who were employed, particularly those with responsible or absorbing jobs, made these jobs the focus of their lives.
However, the pay rate was deliberately set far lower than what inmates would have received outside camp, an administrative response to widespread rumors that Japanese Americans were receiving special treatment while the larger public suffered from wartime shortages.
Others concentrated on hobbies or sought self-improvement by taking adult classes, ranging from Americanization and American history and government to vocational courses in secretarial skills and bookkeeping, and cultural courses in such things as ikebanaJapanese flower arrangement.
The young people spent much of their time in recreational pursuits: Families lived in army-style barracks partitioned into "apartments" with walls that usually didn't reach the ceiling.
These "apartments" were, at the largest, twenty by twenty-four feet 6. In Aprilthe Topaz camp averaged square feet At the Army-run camps that housed dissidents and other "troublemakers," it was estimated that it cost This allowed inmates to keep busy and have some say in their day-to-day life, however, it also served the WRA mission of "Americanizing" the inmates so that they could be assimilated into white communities after the war.
The "enemy alien" Issei were excluded from running for office, and inmates and community analysts argued that the WRA pulled the strings on important issues, leaving only the most basic and inconsequential decisions to Nisei leaders.By October , most west coast Japanese-Americans were residing in ten relocation centers operated by the War Relocation Authority (WRA).
On November 1, , the WRA announced its initial leave clearance and relocation program, which provided for .
Aug 22, · In March , Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt, commander of the U.S.
Army Western Defense Command, issued several public proclamations which established a massive exclusion zone along the west coast and demanded that all persons of Japanese ancestry report to civilian assembly centers.
Oct 29, · Watch video · Japanese Americans reported to centers near their homes. From there they were transported to a relocation center where they might live for months before transfer to a permanent wartime residence.
The first group of 82 Japanese-Americans arrive at the Manzanar internment camp carrying their belongings in suitcases and bags. March 21, Eliot Elisofon/The LIFE . Countless Japanese-Americans held in camps run by the War Relocation Authority left their homes and businesses with only what they could carry — and in many cases returned after the war to find their homes and businesses destroyed or simply taken over, i.e., stolen, by other Americans.
The internment of Japanese Americans began after President Roosevelt signed Executive Order in February For the following three years, American men, women, and children were forced to.